From Kroaz Du to Gwenn Ha Du

Kroaz Du
Kroaz Du

The first known flag of Brittany was the Kroaz Du (or Groaz du), the Black Cross, virtually the reverse of the old Cornish flag. It was given to Pierre Mauclerc by Pope Gregor IX c1236. This was effectively the national flag of Brittany until 1532.

Ar Banniel Erminigaouet
Ermine

Within Breton history is also the ermine banner or Ar Banniel Erminigaouet which was a part of the arms of the Dukes of Brittany and dates back to 1316.

Gwenn Ha Du
Gwenn Ha Du

The present flag ‘Gwenn Ha Du’ means simple ‘white and black’ and was designed as late as the 1920’s but incorporates both these historical devices and boasts 11 ermines to represent traditional Brittany with black and white bars to represent the Breton and Gallaise speaking regions.

©John Davey

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